Publications of Raymond G. Najjar

Journal articles


60. Mannino, A., Signorini, S., Novak, M., Wilkin, J., Friedrichs, M., Najjar, R.G., 2015. Dissolved organic carbon fluxes in the Middle Atlantic Bight: An integrated approach based on satellite data and ocean model products. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, submitted.

59. Schulte, J., Najjar, R.G., Li, M., 2015. The influence of climate modes on streamflow in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, submitted.

58. Yang, Q.C., Tian, H.Q., Friedrichs, M.A.M., Hopkinson, C.S., Lu, C., 2015. Enhanced nitrogen export to the North America East Coast in response to multiple global changes from 1901 to 2008. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, in press.

57. Tomaso, D., Najjar, R.G., 2015. Seasonal and interannual variations in the dissolved oxygen budget of an urbanized tidal river: The Upper Delaware Estuary. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, in press.

56. Tian, H.Q., Yang, Q.C., Najjar, R.G., Ren, W., Friedrichs, M.A.M., Hopkinson, C.S., Pan, S., 2015. Anthropogenic and climatic influences on carbon fluxes from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean: A process-based modeling study. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, in press.

55. Herrmann, M., Najjar, R.G., Kemp, W.M., Alexander, R.B., Boyer, E.W., Cai, W.-J., Griffith, P.C., Kroeger, K.D., McCallister, S.L., Smith, R.A.., 2015. Net ecosystem production and organic carbon balance of U.S. East Coast estuaries. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, in press.

54. Schulte, J.A., Duffy, C., and Najjar, R.G., 2015. Geometric and topological approaches to significance testing in wavelet analysis. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 22, 139-156.

53. Ross, A.C., Najjar, R.G., Li, M., Mann, M., Ford, S., Katz, B., 2015. Sea-level rise and other influences on decadal-scale variations of salinity in a coastal plain estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 157, 79-92.

52. Barr, J.G., Troxler, T., Najjar, R., 2014. Meeting the challenge of understanding coastal carbon cycling using top-down and bottom-up approaches from across disciplines. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 95, 315-316.

51. Bannon, P.R., Najjar, R., 2014. Available energy of the world ocean. Journal of Marine Research, 72, 219-242.

50. Signorini, S., Mannino, A., Friedrichs, M.A.M., Najjar, R.G., Cai, W.-J., Salisbury, J.E., Wang, Z.A., Thomas, H., Shadwick, E., 2013. Surface ocean pCO2 seasonality and sea-air CO2 flux estimates for the North American east coast. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 5439–5460.

49. Kim, T.W., Najjar, R.G., Lee, K., 2012. Influence of precipitation events on phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters of the eastern United States. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28, doi:10.1002/2013GB004712, 1-13.

48. Ning, L., Mann, M.E., Crane, R., Wagener, T., Najjar, R.G., Singh, R., 2012. Probabilistic projections of anthropogenic climate change impacts on precipitation for the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States. Journal of Climate, 25, 5273-5291.

47. Herrmann, M., Najjar, R.G., Neeley, A.R., Vila-Costa, M., Dacey, J.W., DiTullio, G.R., Kieber, D.J., Kiene, R.P., Matrai, P.A., Simó, R., Vernet, M., 2012. Diagnostic modeling of dimethylsulfide (DMS) production at two sites west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Continental Shelf Research, 32, 96-109.

46. Kim, T.-W., Lee, K., Najjar, R.G., Jeong, H.-D., Jeong, H.J., 2011. Increasing N abundance in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean due to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Science 334, 505-509.

45. Katz, B., Najjar, R., Cronin, T., Rayburn, J., Mann, M.E., 2011. Constraints on Lake Agassiz discharge through the late-glacial Champlain Sea (St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada) using salinity proxies and an estuarine circulation model. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 3248-3257.

44. Hofmann, E. E., B. Cahill, K. Fennel, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. Hyde, C. Lee, A. Mannino, R. G. Najjar, J. E. O’Reilly, J. Wilkin, and J. Xue.  2011.  Modeling the dynamics of continental shelf carbon.  Annual Review of Marine Science, 3, 93-122.


43. Najjar, R.G., Pyke, C.R., Adams, M.B., Breitburg, D., Hershner, C., Kemp, M., Howarth, R., Mulholland, M., Paolisso, M., Secor, D., Sellner, K., Wardrop, D., Wood, R. 2010. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay.  Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science, 86, 1-20.

42. Illari, L., J. Marshall, P. Bannon, J. Botella, R. Clark, T. Haine, A. Kumar, S. Lee, K. J.  Mackin, G. A. McKinley, M. Morgan, R. Najjar, T. Sikora, and A. Tandon. 2009. "Weather in a Tank"--Exploiting laboratory experiments in the teaching of meteorology, oceanography, and climate. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90, 1619-1632.

41. Shorr, N., A. Amato, S. Graham, and R. Najjar.  2009.  Climate change impacts on household heating and cooling in the Northeast US compared to those of purposive behaviors.  Climate Research, 39, 19-30.

40. Najjar, R. G., L. Patterson and S. Graham. 2009. Climate simulations of major estuarine watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Climatic Change, 95, 139-168.

39. Wu, S.-Y., R. G. Najjar, and J. Siewert. 2009. Potential impacts of sea-level rise on the Mid- and Upper-Atlantic Region of the United States. Climatic Change, 95, 121-138.

38. Fennel, F., J. Wilkin, M. Previdi, and R. Najjar.  2008. Denitrification effects on air-sea CO2 flux in the coastal ocean: Simulations for the Northwest North Atlantic.  Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L24608, doi:10.1029/2008GL036147.

37. Hilton, T. H., R. G. Najjar, L. Zhong, and M Li. 2008. Is there a signal of sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay salinity?  Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C09002, doi:10.1029/2007JC004247.

36. Gabric, A. J., P. Matrai, R. Cropp, J. Dacey, J. DiTullio, D. J. Kieber, R. P. Kiene, R. G. Najjar, R. Simó, and D. A. Toole.  2008.  Factors determining the vertical profile of dimethylsulfide in the Sargasso Sea during summer. Deep-Sea Research II, 55, 1505-1518.

35. Bailey, K. E., D. A. Toole, B. Blomquist, R. G. Najjar, B. Huebert, D. J. Kieber, R. P. Kiene, P. Matrai, G. R. Westby, and D. A. del Valle.  2008.  Dimethylsulfide production in Sargasso Sea eddies.  Deep-Sea Research II, 55, 1491-1504.

34. Hoffman, E., J.-N. Druon, K. Fennel, M. Friedrichs, D. Haidvogel, C. Lee, A. Mannino, C. McClain, R. Najjar, J. O’Reilly, D. Pollard, M. Previdi, S. Seitzinger, J. Siewert, S. Signorini, and J. Wilkin.  2008.  Eastern US continental shelf carbon budget:  Integrating models, data assimilation, and analysis.  Oceanography, 21(1), 86-104.

33. Zafiriou, O. C., H. Xie, N. B. Nelson, R. G. Najjar, and W. Wang. 2008.  Diel carbon monoxide cycling in the upper Sargasso Sea near Bermuda at the onset of spring and in midsummer.  Limnology and Oceanography, 53, 835-850.

32. Najjar, R. G., and 22 others. 2007. Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter and dissolved oxygen in the ocean: Results from Phase II of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB3007, doi:10.1029/2006GB002857.

31. Jin, X., R. G. Najjar, F. Louanchi, and S. C. Doney.  2007.  A Modeling Study of the Seasonal Oxygen Budget of the Global Ocean.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C05017, doi:10.1029/2006JC003731.

30. Berelson, W. M., W. M. Balch, R. Najjar, R. A. Feely, C. Sabine, K. Lee.  2007. Relating estimates of CaCO3 production, export, and dissolution in the water column to measurements of CaCO3 rain into sediment traps and dissolution on the sea floor: A revised global carbonate budget.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB1024, doi: 10.1029/2006GB002803.

29. Friis, K., R.G. Najjar, M.J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, A. Körtzinger, and K.M. Johnson. 2007. Dissolution of calcium carbonate:  Observations and model results in the North Atlantic.  Biogeosciences, 4, 205-213.

28. Friis, K., R. G. Najjar, M. J. Follows, and S. Dutkiewicz. 2006. Possible overestimation of shallow-depth calcium carbonate dissolution in the ocean.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB4019, doi:10.1029/2006GB002727.

27. Reed, P. M., R. P. Brooks, K. J. Davis, D. R. DeWalle, K. A. Dressler, C. J. Duffy, H. Lin, D. A. Miller, R. G. Najjar, K. M. Salvage, T. Wagener, and B. Yarnal. 2006.  Bridging river basin scales and processes to assess human-climate impacts and the terrestrial hydrologic system. Water Resources Research, 42, W07418, doi:10.1029/2005WR004153.


26. Orr, J. C. and 26 others.  2005.  Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the 21st Century and its impact on marine calcifying organisms. Nature, 437, 681-686.

25. Matsumoto, K. and 31 others.  2004. Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL018970.

24. Doney, S.C. and 27 others.  2004. Evaluating global ocean carbon models: the importance of realistic physics, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18, GB3017, doi:10.1029/2003GB002150.

23. von Hobe, M., R. G. Najjar, A. J. Kettle and M. O. Andreae. 2003. Photochemical and physical modeling of carbonyl sulfide in the ocean. Journal Geophysical Research, 108, 3229-3244.

22. Najjar, R. G., G. Nong, D. Seidov and W. Peterson. 2002. Modeling geographic impacts on early Eocene ocean temperature. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 10.1029/2001GL014438.

21. Dutay, J.-C. and 28 others. 2002. Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: comparison of 13 global ocean models. Ocean Modelling, 4, 89-120.

20. Gabric, A., W. Gregg, R. G. Najjar and D. J. Erickson III. 2001. Modelling the biogeochemical cycle of dimethylsulfide in the upper ocean: A review. Chemosphere - Global Change Science, 3, 377-392.

19. Ono, S., A. Ennyu, R. G. Najjar and N. Bates. 2001. Shallow remineralization in the Sargasso Sea estimated from seasonal variations in oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrate. Deep-Sea Research II, 48, 1567-1582.

18. Louanchi, F. and R. G. Najjar. 2001. The mean annual cycle of nutrients and oxygen in the North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I, 48, 2155-2171.

17. Hotinski, R. M., K. L. Bice, L. R. Kump, R. G. Najjar and M. A. Arthur. 2001. Ocean stagnation and end-Permian anoxia. Geology 29, 7-10.


16. Preiswerk, D. and R. G. Najjar. 2000. A global, open ocean model of OCS and its air-sea flux. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14, 585-598.

15. Gibson, J. and R. G. Najjar. 2000. The response of Chesapeake Bay salinity to climate-induced changes in streamflow. Limnology and Oceanography, 45, 1764-1772.

14. Nong, G. T., R. G. Najjar, D. Seidov and W. H. Peterson. 2000. The impact of Drake Passage on the thermal structure of the ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 2689-2692.

13. Najjar, R. G. and R. F. Keeling. 2000. Mean annual cycle of the air-sea oxygen flux: A global view. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,14, 573-584.

12. Louanchi, F. and R. G. Najjar. 2000. A global monthly mean climatology of phosphate, nitrate and silicate in the upper ocean: Spring-summer production and shallow remineralization. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 957-977.

11. Najjar, R.G., H.A. Walker, P.J. Anderson, E.J. Barron, R. Bord, J. Gibson, V.S. Kennedy, C.G. Knight, P. Megonigal, R. O'Connor, C.D. Polsky, N.P. Psuty, B. Richards, L.G. Sorenson, E. Steele, and R.S. Swanson. 2000. The potential impacts of climate change on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Region. Climate Research, 14, 219-233.

10.  Neff, R., H. J. Chang, C. G. Knight, R. G. Najjar, B. Yarnal, and H. A. Walker.  2000. Impact of climate variation and change on Mid-Atlantic Region hydrology and water resources. Clim. Res. 14: 207-218.

9.  Hotinski, R. M., L. R. Kump and R. G. Najjar. 2000. Opening Pandora's Box: The impact of open system modeling on interpretations of anoxia. Paleoceanography, 15, 267-279.

8.  Najjar, R. G. and R. F. Keeling. 1997. Analysis of the mean annual cycle of the dissolved oxygen anomaly in the World Ocean. Journal of Marine Research, 55, 117-151.

7.  Doney, S. C., D. M. Glover, and R. G. Najjar. 1996. A new coupled, one-dimensional biological-physical model for the upper ocean: Application to the JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Deep-Sea Research II, 43, 591-624.


6.  Doney, S. C., R. G. Najjar, and S. Stewart. 1995. Photochemistry, mixing, and diurnal cycles in the upper ocean. Journal of Marine Research, 53, 341-369.

5.  Keeling, R. F., R. G. Najjar, M. L. Bender and P. P. Tans. 1993. What atmospheric oxygen measurements can tell us about the global carbon cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 37-67.

4.  Levitus, S., J. Reid, M. E. Conkright, R. G. Najjar, and A. Mantyla. 1993. Distribution of phosphate, nitrate and silicate in the world oceans. Progess in Oceanography, 31, 245-273.

3.  Najjar, R. G., J. L. Sarmiento and J. R. Toggweiler. 1992. Downward transport and fate of organic matter in the ocean: simulations with a general circulation model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 6, 45-76.


2.  Sarmiento, J. L., J. R. Toggweiler and R. G. Najjar. 1988. Ocean carbon-cycle dynamics and atmospheric pCO2. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A 325, 3-21.

1.  Najjar, R. G. and C. Laohakul. 1986. An approximate solution to the Graetz problem with axial conduction and prescribed wall heat flux. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 13, 315-324.

Book Chapters

Wu, S.-Y. and R. G. Najjar, 2011: Potential impacts of sea-level rise on the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico Coast of the United States. In: Sea-Level Rise, Coastal Engineering, Shorelines and Tides, Wright, L. L. (ed.), Nova Science Publishers Inc.

Najjar, R. G. 1992. Marine Biogeochemistry. In: Climate System Modeling, Trenberth, K. (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 241-280.

Najjar, R. G., D. J. Erickson III, and S. Madronich. 1995. Modeling the air-sea fluxes of gases formed from the decomposition of dissolved organic matter: Carbonyl sulfide and carbon monoxide. In: The Role of Non-living Organic Matter in the Earth's Carbon Cycle, Zepp, R. and C. Sonntag (eds.), 106-132, John Wiley, New York.

Technical Reports, Conference Proceedings, Newsletters, etc.

Shortle, J., Abler, D., Blumsack, S., McDill, M., Najjar, R., Ready, R., Ross, A., Rydzik, M., Wagener, T., Wardrop, D., 2013. Pennsylvania Climate Impacts Assessment Update, Report to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Environment and Natural Resources Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 155 pp.

Johnson, T., Gollehon, N., Goodrich, J., Nearing, M., Najjar, R., Nover, D., McKinney, S., Rice, K., 2013. Changes in water quality. In: R. Pietrowsky, J. Bales (Editors), Water Resources Sector Technical Input Report In Support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment – 2013.

Najjar, R.G., Ross, A., Kreeger, D., Kilham, S., 2012. Chapter 7--Climate change. In: D. Kreeger, P. Cole (Editors), The Technical Report for the Delaware Estuary and Basin, PDE Report No. 12-01. The Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, Wilmington, DE, pp. 225-241.

Najjar, R.G., Friedrichs, M., Cai, W.-J. (Editors), 2012. Report of The U.S. East Coast Carbon Cycle Synthesis Workshop, January 19-20, 2012. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program and North American Carbon Program, 34 pp.

Nese, J.M., Najjar, R.G., Murgo, J., 2012. Climate science and the broadcast meteorologist. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 1913-1916.

Pyke, C., Sellner, K., Raub, M., Wardrop, D., Najjar, R., Stiles, S., Bennett, M., Johnston, M., 2011. Adapting to Climate Change in the Chesapeake Bay: Proceedings of a Chesapeake Bay Program workshop to monitor progress in addressing climate change across the Chesapeake Bay watershed, March 15-16, 2010, Philadelphia, PA.

Kreeger, D., Adkins, J., Cole, P., Najjar, R., Velinsky, D., Conolly, P., Kraeuter, J., 2010. Climate Change and the Delaware Estuary: Three Case Studies in Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning. Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, PDE Report No. 10-01, Wilmington, Delaware, USA, 117 pp.

Najjar, R., D. E. Butman, W.-J. Cai, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. D. Kroeger, A. Mannino, P. A. Raymond, J. Salisbury, D. C. Vandemark, and P. Vlahos.  2010.  Carbon budget for the continental shelf of the Eastern United States: A preliminary synthesis. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry News, 3 (1), 1-4.

Najjar, R.G. 2009. The dark side of marine carbon. Nature Geoscience, 2, 603-604.

Shortle, J., D. Abler, S. Blumsack, R. Crane, Z. Kaufman, M. McDill, R. Najjar, R. Ready, T. Wagener, and D. Wardrop.  2009.  Pennsylvania Climate Impact Assessment, Report to the Department of Environmental Protection, Environment and Natural Resources Institute, The Pennsylvania State University.  350 pp.

Pyke, C. R., R. G. Najjar, M. B. Adams, D. Breitburg, M. Kemp, C. Hershner, R. Howarth, M. Mulholland, M. Paolisso, D. Secor, K. Sellner, D. Wardrop, and R. Wood. 2008. Climate Change and the Chesapeake Bay: State-of-the-Science Review and Recommendations. A Report from the Chesapeake Bay Program Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC), Annapolis, MD.  59 pp.

Union of Concerned Scientists.  2008.  Climate Change in Pennsylvania:  Impacts and Solutions for the Keystone State. Cambridge, MA, 54 pp.

McGillis, W., R. Duce, D. Erickson, C. Fairall, D. Farmer, R. Feely, B. Huebert, W. Jenkins, W. Keene, R. Kiene, P. Matrai, K. Melville, W. Miller, R. Najjar, E. Saltzman, P. Schlosser, D. Siegel, W.-J. Cai, D. Ho, D. Doney, K. Johnson, C. McNeil, M. J. Perry, J. Prospero, O. Schofield, P. Shepson, D. Turk, and R. Wanninkhof.  2006.  The United States Surface Ocean–Lower Atmospheric Study (SOLAS) Science Implementation Strategy. U.S. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program and the International integrated Marine Biogeochemistry Ecosystem Research (IMBER) and the SOLAS program, 123 pp.

Ocean ITI Working Group.  2004.  Trends in information Technology Infrastructure in the Ocean Sciences, 24 pp.

National Research Council, 2003. Understanding Climate Change Feedbacks. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 152 pp.

Najjar, R. G., N. Gruber and J. C. Orr. 2001. Predicting the ocean's response to rising CO2: The Ocean Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project. U.S. JGOFS News, 11(1), 1-4.

Orr, J. C., P. Monfray, E. Maier-Reimer, J. R. Palmer and R. G. Najjar. 1997. Transition time for ocean carbon-cycle model comparison. Research GAIM, 1 (2), 8-11.

Najjar, R. G. 1995. Three-dimensional models of the marine carbon cycle. In: Speranza, A., S. Tibaldi and R. Fantechi, Global Change, Proceedings of the First Demetra Meeting, Chianciano, Italy, pp. 246-264. European Commission, Luxembourg.

Najjar, R. G. and J. R. Toggweiler. 1993. Reply to the comment by Jackson. Limnology and  Oceanography, 38, 1331-1332.

Najjar, R. G. 1990. Simulations of the phosphorus and oxygen cycles in the world ocean using a general circulation model, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 190 pp.

Sarmiento, J. L., M. Fasham, U. Siegenthaler, R. Najjar and J. R. Toggweiler. 1989. Models of chemical cycling in the oceans II: a progress report. Ocean Tracers Laboratory Technical Report # 6, Princeton University.

Toggweiler, J. R., J. L. Sarmiento, R. Najjar and D. Papademetriou. 1987. Models of chemical cycling in the oceans: a progress report. Ocean Tracers Laboratory Technical Report #4, Princeton University.