Sandip Pal

Sandip Pal

  • Research Associate
405 Walker Building
University Park, PA 16802


  1. Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences (2008): Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Germany.
  2. M.Tech in Atmospheric Physics (2004): University of Pune, India.
  3. M.Sc. in Physics (2002): University of Kalyani, India.
  4. B.Sc. with Hons. in Physics (2000): University of Calcutta, India.


Sandip Pal is an atmospheric scientist. He earned his Ph.D. (magna cum laude) in Atmospheric Sciences from the faculty of natural sciences, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany in 2008. His thesis works involve development and application of an eye safe mobile scanning aerosol lidar system for studying atmospheric boundary layer and aerosol transport mechanisms in the lower troposphere. He became postdoctoral scholar at the same place after completing his dissertation and worked on different sub projects of COPS field campaign. Between 2010 and 2012, Sandip worked in two French Laboratories (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) and LMD-Ecole Polytechnique) in Paris, France within the ICOS project. Between February 2013 and August 2015, he worked in the University of Virginia as a Research Associate.


Recently, Sandip joined as a Research Associate in the Department of Meteorology at Penn State and started working on the ACT-America project. His main research interests lie in the development and application of advanced ground-based and airborne lidar systems for defining atmospheric state variables, tracers, aerosol properties, and boundary layer dynamics and turbulence features. Other research interests include carbon cycle, boundary layer and mountain meteorology, turbulence, physiochemical properties of atmospheric aerosols, and development of instruments for atmospheric and environmental sciences. He is a Member of numerous scientific societies like EGU, AMS, AGU, IASTA, and AAAS. He served as journal referee for more than 22 different international journals. He is the recipient of COPS Young Scientist Award. He also serves as an editorial board member of the journal Advances in Meteorology.



[22] Behrendt, A., Wulfmeyer, V., Hammann, E., Muppa, S., Pal, S. 2015. Profiles of second- to fourth-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations in the convective boundary layer: first measurements with rotational Raman lidar, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 5485–5500, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5485-2015.

[21] Fernando, H. J. S. and co-authors (including Pal, S.), 2015. The MATERHORN – Unraveling the Intricacies of Mountain Weather, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,

[20] Lee, T.R., De Wekker, S.F.J., Pal, S., Andrews, A., Kofler, J., 2015. Meteorological controls on the diurnal variability of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at a mountaintop monitoring site in the Appalachian Mountains, Tellus B 2015, 67, 25659,

[19] Cimini, N., Angelini, F., Dupont, J.-C., Pal, S., Haeffelin, M. 2013. Microwave radiometer measurements of mixing layer height, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 6, 2941–2951.

Lac C., Donnelly, R.P., Masson, V., Pal, S., Riette, S., Donier, S., Queguiner, S., Tanguy, G., Ammoura, L., and I. Xueref-Remy, 2013. CO2 Dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 4941–4961

[17] Pal, S., Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Gibert, F., Xueref-Remy, I., Ciais, P., 2014. Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and its impact on the 222Rn concentration at a rural site in France: Evaluation of a year-long measurement, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022322.

[16] Pal S, Haeffelin M, Batchvarova E, 2013. Exploring a geophysical process-based attribution technique for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer depth using aerosol lidar and near-surface meteorological measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 118, 1–19.

] Pal, S., Lee, T.R., Phelps, S., De Wekker, S.F.J., 2014. Impact of atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and wind reversal on the diurnal variability of aerosol concentration at a valley site. Science of the Total Environment, 496, 424–434, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.067.

[14] Pal, S., 2014. Monitoring Depth of Shallow Atmospheric Boundary Layer to Complement LiDAR Measurements Affected by Partial Overlap, Remote Sensing,  6(9), 8468-8493

[13] Pal, S., Xueref-Remy, I., Ammoura, L., Chazette, P., Gibert, F., Royer, P., Dieudonné, E., Dupont, J.C., Haeffelin, M., Lac, C., Lopez, M., Morille, Y., Ravetta, F., 2012. Spatio-temporal variability of the atmospheric boundary layer depth over the Paris agglomeration: An assessment of the impact of the urban heat island intensity, Atmospheric Environment, 63: 261-275.

Pal, S and Devara PCS, 2012: A wavelet-based spectral analysis of long-term time series of optical properties of aerosols obtained by lidar and radiometer measurements over an urban station in Western India, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 84–85, 75–87. 

[11] Pal, S , Behrendt A and Wulfmeyer V. (2010) Elastic-backscatter-lidar-based characterization of the convective boundary layer and investigation of related statistics Annales Geophysicae, 28: 825-847.

[10] Pal, S , Behrendt A, Bauer H, Radlach M, Riede A, Schiller M, Wagner G and Wulfmeyer V. (2008) 3 -dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS IOP: Earth and Environmental Sciences 1 012031, ISSN 1755-1307 (Print),ISSN 1755-1315 (Online).

[9] Behrendt A, Pal, S, Aoshima F, Bender M, Blyth A, Corsmeier U, Cuesta J, Dick G, Di Girolamo P, Dorninger M, Flamant C, Huang Y, Gorgas T, Kalthoff N, Khodayar S and Wulfmeyer V. (2011) Observation of Convection Initiation Processes with a Suite of State-of-the-Art Research Instruments during COPS IOP8b, Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society 137: 81-100.

[8] Behrendt A, Pal, S, Wulfmeyer V, Valdebenito AM and Lammel G (2011) ) A novel approach for the characterisation of transport and optical properties of aerosol particles near sources Part I: Measurement of particle backscatter coefficient maps with a scanning UV lidar, Atmospheric Environment 45 2795-2802.

[7] Valdebenito AM, Pal, S, Lammel G, Behrendt A and Wulfmeyer V (2011) A novel approach for the characterization of transport and optical properties of aerosol particles emitted from an animal facility- Part II: High-resolution chemistry transport model and its assessment using lidar measurements Atmospheric Environment 45: 2981-2990.

[6] Wulfmeyer V, Pal, S, Turner DD and Wagner E. (2010) Can the water vapor Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer? Boundary Layer Meteorology 136: 253-284.

[5] Behrendt A, Wulfmeyer V, Riede A, Wagner G, Pal, S, Bauer H, Radlach M and Späth F (2009) 3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar, SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009); doi:10.1117/12.835143, ISBN: 9780819477804. ISBN: 9780819477804.

[4] Bhawar R, Di Girolamo P, Summa D, Flamant C, Althausen D, Behrendt A, Kiemle C, Bosser P, Cacciani M, Champollion C, Di Iorio T, Herold C, Mueller D, Pal S, Riede A, Wirth M and Wulfmeyer V. (2011) Water Vapour Intercomparison Effort in the Frame of the Convective and Orographically-Induced Precipitation Study: Airborne-to-Ground-based and airborne-to-airborne Lidar Systems Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society 137: 325-348.

[3] Wulfmeyer V, and co-authors (including Pal, S.), 2011: The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS): An overview of the field phase and first highlights Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society 137: 3-30.  [Hot Paper in the field of Geosciences,]

[2] Groenemeijer P, Barthlott Ch, Behrendt A, Corsmeier U, Handwerker J, Kohler M, Kottmeier Ch, Mahlke H, Pal S, Radlach M, Trentmann J, Wieser A and Wulfmeyer V, 2008: Observations of kinematics and thermodynamic structure surrounding a convective storm cluster over a low mountain range Monthly Weather Review 137 585-602.

[1] Behrendt A, Wagner G, Petrova A, Shiler M, Pal S, Schaberl T and Wulfmeyer V (2005) Modular lidar systems for high-resolution 4-dimensional measurements of water vapor, temperature, and aerosols, SPIE 5653, 220, doi:10.1117/12.579139.

Other relevant discussion papers/papers available with DOI
  • Behrendt, A., Wulfmeyer, V., Hammann, E., Muppa, S., Pal, S. 2014. Profiles of second- to third-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations in the convective boundary layer:  First Measurements with rotational Raman lidar, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 14, 29019-29055, doi:10.5194/acpd-14-29019-2014, 2014
  • Cimini, D., F. De Angelis, J.-C. Dupont, S. Pal,  and M. Haeffelin, 2013. Mixing layer height retrievals by multichannel microwave radiometer observations, Atmospheric Measurement and Techniques Discuss., 6, 4971-4998, doi:10.5194/amtd-6-4971-2013.
  • Lac, C., Donnelly, R. P., Masson, V., Pal, S., Donier, S., Queguiner, S., Tanguy, G., Ammoura, L., and Xueref-Remy, I.: CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discuss, 12, 28155-28193, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-28155-2012, 2012.
  • Technical description of Water-vapor Differential Absorption Lidar of University of Hohenheim (2008) Behrendt A, Wulfmeyer V, Pal S and Bauer H online at World Data Center for Climate (WDCC). DOI:10.1594/WDCC/cops_suph_wvdial.
  • Profiles of temperature and particle backscatter coefficient at 355 nm measured with the Rotational Raman Lidar of University of Hohenheim (UHOH RRL) during COPS 2007 (2008) Behrendt A, Radlach M, Pal S and Wulfmeyer V, World Data Center for Climate. DOI:10.1594/WDCC/cops_suph_rlidar.
  • Final Report: COST0702 EG-CLIMET (European Ground-based Observations of Essential Variables for Climate and Operational Meteorology), Editors: A.J. Illingworth, D. Ruffieux, D. Cimini, U. Löhnert, M. Haffelin, V. Lehmann.
Keywords for my research: Atmospheric boundary layer; Carbon Cycle, Turbulence and mixing; Lidar; Clouds and convection initiation; Complex Terrain; Micrometeorology and fluxes; Boundary layer dynamics, Biosphere-atmosphere interaction, Eddy covariance techniques, Spatial scale from local to regional; Ground-based remote sensing; Atmospheric aerosols, Greenhouse gases and trace gases, Radon, Aerosol and boundary layer height climatology, Urban Heat Island, Surface-atmosphere interaction; Wavelet analyses; Environmental pollution.